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Histologia Basica Junqueira E Carneiro 11 Ed
the dna obtained from the tissues was amplified with 2% agarose gel electrophoresis. the samples were analyzed under uv light, a radiation that allows the differentiation between the amplified dna and other substances, such as nucleotides, proteins and fragments of dntp in the lane. a single band with high intensity was observed, which corresponded to amplified dna. the dna was also analyzed under ethidium bromide and phage green in the gel. this analysis enables detection of the extracted dna in the gel and its quantification by comparison to a known concentration of dna (figura 1 e 2).
other secretion glands include the salivary and sebaceous glands. in addition, the larvae of the ants monomorium pharaonis monomorium bicorne and monomorium darwini have two pairs of salivary glands, and the larvae of the ant formica polyctena have two pairs of salivary glands.
some ants have more than a single pair of sebaceous glands. the monophyly of the malvidae has been confirmed. both the three bumble bee genera and the two aphilanthotinae genera have been confirmed. the reference sequences of the rdna of the bombus terrestris complex and the hylaeus clade were used to establish a phylogeny based on the complete ribosomal dna sequences.
these data allow a more detailed discussion of the phylogenetic relationships among the three bee genera as they appear in the analysis shown in figure 1. the statistical support for the branch-groups of the tree is indicated by bootstrap values of the nodes. the support for the malvidae was moderate and suggested by a combination of bootstrap values from a variety of topologies with the use of the conservative bayesian statistics. however, the aphilanthotinae group was supported, and the monophyletic relationship of the aphilanthotinae and ceratinae was strongly supported. phylogenetic relationships from the previous studies were poorly supported. figure 2 includes sequences from apiformes species that are reported by kimura (1986) and (1987).