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* _Adobe Photoshop CC_ : www.adobe.com/uk/products/photoshop-cc.html
# Chapter 2: Choosing a Subject
What makes a photograph special is the subject. Although subjects can include people, places, and objects, they’re best when they’re the main focus of a photograph. Such a photographer is not just a peep-show voyeur; rather, he or she is there to concentrate solely on the subject.
Just as clothes, sports equipment, and so on become meaningful only when they’re in a photograph, the subject in a photograph can be anything: a flower, a mountain, a column, an airport sign, or a logo. But a subject that serves as the main focus of a photograph is much easier to photograph than something that’s the backdrop for a photograph.
If you’re lucky, your subject will provide the main features of your picture. If not, the subject doesn’t need to be a subject at all. As with all photography, what matters is _how_ the subject will serve as the main subject of the photograph. Figure 2-1 offers a quick overview of the various types of subjects you can photograph.
You don’t have to limit yourself to the examples in Figure 2-1 to determine what type of subject serves best as the main subject in your photograph. Many of the examples in this chapter show subjects that are different from those in the preceding figure.
FIGURE 2-1: Choosing a subject for a photograph is a balancing act.
Keep in mind the following tips when choosing your subject:
* **Look for a subject with interesting shapes.** Some photo-editing software makes it easy to add different kinds of shapes to a subject. You can, for example, create a mountain shape in your image by creating a series of dots in the right places. (Click the View drop-down menu and choose Other.) The advantage to using such shapes is that you don’t have to be an expert designer to create them. However, you can also use a drawing or other art program to create shapes that will do wonders for your photographs.
* **Make sure that the subject you choose is unique.** If you can’t pick out a good subject in a particular scene, try photographing the same subject from a different perspective, or use a different subject altogether.
* **Think about lighting.** Lights can be natural, such as when you see
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As an Amazon Associate I earn from qualifying purchases. United States Court of Appeals
F I L E D
IN THE UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALS
FOR THE FIFTH CIRCUIT May 3, 2007
Charles R. Fulbruge III
The Healing Brush tool blends color from multiple areas of an image to make one complete image.
The Gradient Tool allows you to create gradual color changes in a photo. The Gradient Tool also has a Live Guide feature, which displays the gradient and color change as you work.
The Lasso Tool lets you select an area of an image and make selections by clicking and dragging. This tool is useful for selecting objects like people’s eyes, mouths, and hairstyles.
The Pen tool can be used to add, erase or paint anything on an image, including text, lines, and shapes. This tool can be used to draw or paint objects on a photo, such as a floor or the side of a building. The Pen tool also allows you to erase things on an image, such as areas that are outside of the selection.
The Smudge tool blends together pixels from one area to another. This tool is used to create effects like erasing or smearing out an object.
The Refine Edge tool enhances or improves the edge definition of an image. This is a great tool for images that are in need of repair.
The Sponge tool paints any color onto an image. This tool is commonly used to apply a specific color to an object or to change colors in an object.
You can also use the Filter tool to adjust certain aspects of photos and objects. You can use the Filter tool to change colors, create special effects, remove objects from photos, create highlights and shadows and make any color more or less intense. In addition to the filters themselves, you can use the Color, Hue, Saturation, Lightness, and Value Adjustment tools to adjust images. no reason to revisit the propriety of the district court’s preliminary injunction order.
As this Court has previously recognized, “single-member districts also pose problems for non-citizens…. However, the problems are not as grave as those in multi-member districts.” Ortiz v. City of Philadelphia, 583 F.2d 1171, 1176-77 (3d Cir. 1978). In Ortiz, a case concerning an attack on a statutory scheme for single-member districts in the Philadelphia City Council, this Court held that the district court properly rejected the argument that the scheme created by the statute was a violation of the Fourteenth Amendment because no such violation existed. Id. at 1176. In that case, a non-citizen who resided in Pennsylvania stated that she did not wish to live in a
New York Times: “For at least 15 years, Mr. Vang’s family members insisted that Mr. Vang was missing, and by 2014 they had reason to believe that he had been killed by the Vietnamese military. But their quest for answers hit a dead end. Back then, they could not make headway into Thailand, and in their desperation they turned to the widely advertised program offered by the United States Embassy. The family paid a local agent hundreds of thousands of dollars for information on Mr. Vang’s whereabouts and what had happened to him. …. More accurately, the family turned to the program of the United States Embassy, which has helped with thousands of immigration cases involving American citizens, including family reunifications.”
“Relatives of Thach Thanh Ta offered the family $80,000 for information, a deal that a lawyer for Mr. Vang was not at liberty to detail. ‘Everybody was crazy,’ said one of the family members, who was not identified.”
“An anonymous caller from Thailand told the Vangs that Mr. Vang was alive, though a second caller misled them about his location.”
“The Vangs – who arrived in the United States in 2012 on a one-way tourist visa, a legal entry point for foreigners – thought about leaving the country. ‘My wife had been crying,’ said Thach Thanh Ta, who was on a waiting list for a visa extension when the family left Vietnam. ‘I thought, ‘If we leave, where will I go next?’”
“No matter how deeply one digs into the immigration bureaucracy, there are few answers; because the United States has no well-defined mechanism to track whether its citizens have left the country, officials are overwhelmed and unable to provide anything specific.”
“Six months later, the story fell apart, too. Mr. Vang had not been at the beach in the photograph; it was a picture of a park in a different part of Vietnam.”
The U.S. had promised the family to help find Mr. Vang, but nothing ever came of it. The only difference between this and the many other cases of “missing” American citizens overseas was that people like Bryan Yeager had something to point at. The Vangs didn’t. In his
FINAL FANTASY® XIV
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